Properties of Directional Couplers
The properties of an ideal directional coupler are as follows.
All the terminations are matched to the ports.
When the power travels from Port 1 to Port 2, some portion of it gets coupled to Port 4 but not to Port 3.
As it is also a bi-directional coupler, when the power travels from Port 2 to Port 1, some portion of it gets coupled to Port 3 but not to Port 4.
If the power is incident through Port 3, a portion of it is coupled to Port 2, but not to Port 1.
If the power is incident through Port 4, a portion of it is coupled to Port 1, but not to Port 2.
Port 1 and 3 are decoupled as are Port 2 and Port 4.
Ideally, the output of Port 3 should be zero. However, practically, a small amount of power called back power is observed at Port 3. The following figure indicates the power flow in a directional coupler.
= Incident power at Port 1
= Received power at Port 2
= Forward coupled power at Port 4
= Back power at Port 3
Following are the parameters used to define the performance of a directional coupler.
The Coupling factor of a directional coupler is the ratio of incident power to the forward power, measured in dB.
The Directivity of a directional coupler is the ratio of forward power to the back power, measured in dB.
It defines the directive properties of a directional coupler. It is the ratio of incident power to the back power, measured in dB.
Isolation in dB = Coupling factor + Directivity
Two-Hole Directional Coupler
This is a directional coupler with same main and auxiliary waveguides, but with two small holes that are common between them. These holes aredistance apart where λg is the guide wavelength. The following figure shows the image of a two-hole directional coupler.
A two-hole directional coupler is designed to meet the ideal requirement of directional coupler, which is to avoid back power. Some of the power while travelling between Port 1 and Port 2, escapes through the holes 1 and 2.
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